Saturday, September 24, 2016

"Lord" in the New Testament

The words for "Lord" in the New Testament are rendered from two Greek words (1) Kurios and (2) Depostes, and one Aramaic word (3) Rabboni.

Kurios means "owner" (See Luke 19:33) , "ruler", "master", or it is an address of a man in the sense of "sir" or "mister". Usually, however, it expresses "authority" or "ownership". It is not only used of Jehovah (some prefer "Yahweh") and the one anointed (made Christ) by Jehovah (Isaiah 61:1,2; Acts 2:36), but it also used of others. For reference, what we present below is from Appendix 98 of Bullinger's Companion Bible (Bullinger's references are to the King James Version of the Bible --we do not necessarily agree with all applications given by Bullinger below.):

Kurios:

In the Four Gospels.

Used of Jehovah (Appendix 4. II), and printed "LORD" throughout.
With the Article (ho Kurios).
In quotations from the Old Testament it occurs four 1 times: in Matthew 1:22; 2:15; 5:33; 22:44-.
In other connections it occurs fourteen times: once in Matthew 9:38; once in Mark 5:19; twelve times in Luke 1:6,9,15,25,28,46; 2:15,22,23,38; 10:2; 20:42.
Without the Article (Kurios).
In quotations from the Old Testament it occurs twenty-nine times; eight times in Matthew 3:3; 4:7,10; 21:9,42; 22:37; 23:39; 27:10; eight times in Mark 1:3; 11:9,10; 12:11,29,29,30,36; nine times in Luke 3:4; 4:8,12,18,19; 10:27; 13:35; 19:38; 20:37; four times in John 1:23; 12:13,38,38.
In other connections twenty-four times: six times in Matthew 1:20,24; 2:13,19; 11:25; 28:2; once in Mark 13:20; seventeen times in Luke 1:11,16,17,32,38,45,48,66,68,76; 2:9,23,24,26,39; 5:17; 10:21.
Used by Christ Himself.
With the Article (ho Kurios).
In direct reference: six times Matthew 21:3; 24:42; Mark 11:3; Luke 19:31; John 13:13,14.
In direct reference: twice Matthew 22:44; Luke 20:42.
Without the Article (Kurios).
In direct reference: eleven times Matthew 7:21,21,22,22; 12:8; 25:37,44; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5,46,46.
In indirect reference: four times Matthew 22:43,45; Mark 12:37; Luke 20:44.
Used of Christ by others.
By His disciples: fifty-nine times Matthew 8:21,25; 13:51; 14:28,30; 16:22; 17:4; 18:21; 26:22; [not one in Mark 2] Luke 1:43; 5:8; 9:54,57,59,61; 10:17,40; 11:1; 12:41; 13:23; 17:37; 19:8,34; 22:31,33,38,49; 23:42; 24:34; John 6:68; 9:36,38; 11:3,12,21,27,32,34,39; 13:6,9,25,36,37; 14:5,8,22; 20:2,13,18,20,25,28; 21:7,15,16,17,20,21.
By others than His disciples.
Rendered "Lord" eighteen times: twelve in Matthew 8:2,6,8; 9:28; 15:22,25,27; 17:15; 20:30,31,38; 28:6; only twice in Mark 7:28; 9:24; four times in Luke 2:11; 5:12; 7:6; 18:41; twice in John 6:34; 8:11.
Rendered "Sir" six times: John 4:11,15,19,49; 5:7; 20:15 (Mary, addressing the supposed gardener).
By the Holy Spirit frequently in the narratives of the Evangelists.
Used of others than Christ.
With the Article (ho Kurios), emphasizing ownership. Occurs fourty-two times: twenty-one times in Matthew 10:24,25; 15:27; 18:25,27,31,32,34; 20:8; 21:40; 24:45,46,48,50; 25:18,19,21,21,23,23,26; twice in Mark 12:9; 13:35; sixteen times in Luke 12:36,37,42,43,45,46,47; 14:21,23; 16:3,5,5,8; 19:33; 20:13,15; three times in John 13:16; 15:15,20.
Without the Article (Kurios). Generally in courtesy, emphasizing superior relationship. Occ. Nineteen times. Rendered "Lord" fourteen times (Matthew 18:26; 25:11,11,20,22,24. Luke 13:8,25,25; 14:22; 19:16,18,20,25); "Master" twice (Matthew 6:24. Luke 16:13); "Sir" four times (Matthew 13:27; 21:30; 27:63. John 12:21).
In the other books of the New Testament.
Used of Jehovah (Appendix 4. II), and printed "LORD" throughout; as in the Old Testament.
With the Article (ho Kurios).
In quotations from the Old Testament. Occurs ten times (Acts 2:25,34; 4:26; 7:33; 13:47; 15:17. Romans 15:11. 1 Corinthians 10:26,28. Hebrews 8:11).
In other connections: Acts 2:47. 2 Corinthians 10:18. Hebrews 8:2; 12:14. James 5:11. 2Peter 3:9,15. Jude 5. Revelation 11:15,21,22.
Without the Article (Kurios).
In quotations from, or references to, the Old Testament: Acts 2:20,21; 3:22; 7:30,31,37,49. Romans 4:8; 9:28,29; 10:13,16; 11:3,34; 12:19; 14:11. 1 Corinthians 1:31; 2:16; 3:20; 14:21. 2 Corinthians 6:17,18; 10:17. Hebrews 1:10; 7:21; 8:8,9,10; 10:16,30,30; 12:5,6; 13:6. 1Peter 1:25; 3:12,12.
In other connection: Acts 1:24; 2:39; 5:9,19; 17:24. 2 Corinthians 3:16. James 5:4,10,11. 2 Peter 2:9,11; 3:8,10. Jude 9,14. Revelation 4:8; 11:17; 15:3,4; 16:5,7; 18:8; 19:1,6; 22:5,6.
Used of Christ.
With the Article, as in Acts 2:-34. 2 Corinthians 3:17, etc.
Without the Article, as in 1 Corinthians 8:6, etc.

Despotes.

Like Kurios (i, above) it denotes owner; but it includes (when used of God) the exercise of more absolute, unlimited and despotic authority and power in heaven and on earth. It is derived from deo = to bind, and pous = the foot. It occurs ten times in the New Testament, and is rendered five times "Lord" ; and five times "Master" (see No. XIV. 2, below).
Used of Jehovah (Appendix 4. II) three times (Luke 2:29. Acts 4:24. Revelation 6:10).
Used of Christ, twice (2 Peter 2:1. Jude 4).

Rabboni.

Aramaic for the Hebrew Rabbi = my Master, or Teacher. See Appendix 94. III. 3. Occurs twice, once translated "Lord" (Mark 10:51); and once transliterated "Rabboni" (John 20:16).
Please note that we do not necessarily agree with all of Bullinger's applications as given above.
Related Posts:
One Lord in Ephesians 4:5
One God, One Lord
The Only Despotes
The Son of Yahweh is Not Yahweh
Jesus is Not Jehovah

Kurios (includes a list of all scriptures where this word appears in the New Testament)