Thursday, April 13, 2017

The Tetragrammaton in Genesis

God spoke to Moses, and said to him, "I am Yahweh; and I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty; but by my name Yahweh I was not known to them. - Exodus 6:2,3 World English Bible
(In the process of updating this study)

Part One Various Theories of Exodus 6:2,3

Many, by reading Exodus 6:2,3, have concluded that God first revealed his name to Moses at the time spoken of in Genesis 6. In other words, it is concluded from the above that no one had ever heard the name of Yahweh before, and that this was the first time it had ever been spoken. According to this theory, none of the servants of God spoken of in Genesis had ever heard of the name of Yahweh. Yet when we read the book of Genesis we do find that God's name appears there many times. Eve evidently spoke it. (Genesis 4:1) Noah spoke it. (Genesis 9:26) Abram (Abraham) spoke it. (Genesis 13:4; 14:22; 15:2,8; 22:14) Sarai (Sarah) spoke it. (Genesis 16:2,5,13) The servant of Abraham spoke it. (Genesis 24:12,35,40,42,44,56) Laban spoke it. (Genesis 24:50,51; 30:27,30; 31:49) Isaac spoke it. (Genesis 26:22,25; 27:20) Abimlech spoke it. (Genesis 26:28,29) Jacob spoke it. (Genesis 27:7; 28:16,21; 32:9; 49:18) Leah spoke it. (Genesis 29:32,33,35) Rachel spoke it. (Genesis 30:24) This fact may not be apparent in many translations of the scriptures, because the Holy Name has been replaced with the title, "the LORD", making it appear that God's name was "the LORD". The following translations are a few that do not substitute the Holy Name in Genesis: American Standard Version, Rotherham's Emphasized Bible, Young's Literal Translation, World English Bible, New World Translation, New Jerusalem Bible. Many atheists, agnostics, deists and others point to this scripture, claiming either that it is a contradiction to the record of Genesis, or it is claimed that the record of Genesis is inaccurate, being a forgery of Moses or some later writer, and that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob actually worshipped the gods of the heathen before this, especially one purported to have the name of "El" (which literally means, strength, might, or mighty one). Thus it is important to arrive at a satisfactory understanding concerning this matter, not only because of the accusations of those who oppose the Bible, but because it does involve the most important name in the universe, that is, the name of our Creator, Yahweh. Coffman states concerning Exodus 6:3: "This passage must be hailed as one of the most difficult in the Bible, the difficulty being in the statement that, 'as Jehovah' (Yahweh), God was unknown to the patriarchs. Whereas, it is a fact that the patriarchs most assuredly DID know God by that name! We may be certain that this apparent contradiction is due to some kind of human error. It is simply inconceivable that Moses, the author of Exodus, could have stated what is recorded here, unless some meaning beyond what seems to be said is intended."* Therefore, we really need to take a closer look. ========= *Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Exodus 6". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999. But if Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were acquainted with the Holy Name, then why is it stated in Exodus 6 that this name was unknown to them? Exodus 6:2,3 reads from the King James Version: "And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD: And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them." Let us also realize that the King James Version has added the phrase "by my name" before "God Almighty". This gives a false impression concerning the verse, since it would seem to place the term "God Almighty" as another personal name for the Creator. Strictly speaking, God Almighty is not spoken of as the personal name of God. It is a title, and as such it is a titular name, but it is not his personal name. Most translations read similar to the World English Version: "God spoke to Moses, and said to him, 'I am Yahweh; and I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty; but by my name Yahweh I was not known to them.'" Notice that "God Almighty" is not referred to as his name, but rather it is used as a descriptive title, thus two personal names are not being spoken of, but a title -- God Almighty (El Shaddai) and then the Holy Name, Yahweh, is added. There are at least four different ways of interpreting the latter part of verse 3. Viewpoint One: Josephus interpreted Exodus 6:3 to mean that no one had heard of the name Yahweh before God spoke this name to Moses. This has been the conclusion of many others. However, this conclusion does raise the question: How did the tetragrammaton get into the book of Genesis and in the earlier part of the Book of Exodus? If we reason that Moses simply wrote the name in by adding it into the text, then we are left with more questions: What name was being called upon by the various ones spoken of in Genesis? (Genesis 4:26; 12:8; 13:4; 14:22; 16:13; 21:33; 24:7; 26:25) What name did Abraham actually have his servant swear by? (Genesis 24:3) What name did Abraham actually call the mountain in Genesis 22:14? What name did God actually identify himself by in Genesis 15:7; 28:13? What name was originally given as the God of Shem (Genesis 9:26); the God of Abraham (Genesis 24:27,42,48; 26:24); the God of Abraham and Isaac (Genesis 28:13)? Many who accept Jospehus' claim that when Moses wrote the book of Genesis, claim that he did it from hindsight and thus inserted the Holy Name into the mouths of the speakers. But in view of the way many of the scriptures are worded we do not find it plausible to think that EL SHADDAI or some other unknown reference was originally used in these scriptures and that Moses later added the name of Yahweh into these statements. We will present all places where the Holy Name does appear in Genesis later. Viewpoint Two: The second way of interpreting this verse is offered by a few*, which would render the phrase "was I not known to them" as a question: "By my name, Yahweh, was I not known to them?" This rendering could be, but most scholars do not accept it since the interrogative in Hebrew is usually shown by an interrogative pronoun, or by adding the letter "He" as the first letter to the sentence. Neither appear here, so the sentence is not usually viewed as interrogative, although there are some fairly good arguments as to why this should still be viewed as interrogative even without such. ========== *John Gill states: "by reading the words with an interrogation, the clause will appear more plain, 'and by my name Jehovah was I not known to them?' " -- Gill, John. "Commentary on Exodus 6:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". Viewpoint Three: John L. Ronning of the Bible Institute of South Africa, proposed another rendering. He states*: "We propose instead the following translation, which involves reading the preposition wl in place of the negative particle al: '... and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as El Shaddai; but as for My name YHWH, by it I had been known to them.' In more idiomatic English, this could be rendered, 'When I appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as El Shaddai, I was already known to them by my name YHWH.'" Evidently he is saying that there is a copyist error and that by changing one letter the whole meaning is different. ========== *Ronning, John. L. Exodus 6:3 and Patriarchal Knowledge of the Name "YHWH", copyright 1986 The above quote was obtained from: Viewpoint Four: The fourth way of interpreting this verse does so by taking into consideration how the word "know" is used in the Hebrew Scriptures. The Hebrew word translated "known" is yada' (Strong's Hebrew #3045). It has various shades of meaning, and its usage in Exodus 6:3 does not necessarily mean that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were not aware of the name. For one illustration of this, we point to Genesis 4:1, where we read that Adam knew [Hebrew, yada'] his wife. It does not mean that he did not know his wife before as a person, but it means that he knew his wife more intimately in the sexual bond. Similarly, in Exodus 6:3, God was revealing his name in a manner different than it had been known to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The usage of "yada'" can be also seen by its similar usage in connection with the Holy Name in Exodus 6:7; 7:17; 8:10,22; 9:14,29; 10:2; 11:7; 14:4,18; 16:6,8,12; 18:11; Deuteronomy 29:6; 1 Kings 20:13; 20:28; Isaiah 49:26; Jeremiah 24:7; Ezekiel 6:7,13,14; 7:4,27; 11:10,12,15,16; 12:20; 13:9,14,21; 14:8; 15:7; 16:62; 20:12,20,38,42; etc. This is further attested to if one looks at the name in the causative rather than simple present tense. Some believe this to be the earlier Jewish view* of the meaning of the name, but the usual meaning given to this word is something like "He is," or some claim it means "The Eternal", although the latter does not actually express a verb, and it leaves the verb in static sense of existence only. (See the study, "Does the Holy Name Mean 'The Eternal'?") "Yahweh", in Hebrew, is a verb, and as such is the third person singular of the Hebrew verb hayah (to be or become). In Exodus 3:14, Yahweh gives Moses a different variation of his name in the first person, which has been translated as meaning: ""I AM WHO I AM" (World English) or "I will be what I will be (Ehyeh' asher' ehyeh')." (Revised Standard Version - footnote) The King James Version renders this "I AM THAT I AM." From this theory developed the idea that the Holy Name -- Yahweh -- means "Eternal One", although the present tense does not refer to eternal past at all. Thus this idea is actually read into the meaning of "I am." Others claim that it means Yahweh exists outside of time, and give the word "eternal" the meaning of a realm in which time does not exist, that is, the absence of time. This is a human philosophical theory, which may be true, but the idea itself cannot be found in the scriptures. There are some good works that refute the idea that Biblical eternity means absence of time.* But the proponents of this view do not give a good explanation as to why God's revealment of such an idea to enslaved Israelites at this time would have had any meaning to their suffering condition. ========== *See: Time and Eternity, by G. T. Stevenson. This book is online at: PDF Version: TEACHINGS [L - Z]/TIME AND ETERNITY-Biblical Study on AIONIAN [G. T. Stevenson.pdf Also see: Understanding God: God and Time, by Jack Cottrell, Cincinnati Bible Seminary, Fall 2002 This report can be found online at: However, some claim that the earlier Jewish view was that the Holy Name is causative; this would give the the Hebrew phrase Ehyeh Asher Eyeh of Exodus 3:14 the meaning of "I cause to be what I cause to be," rather than "I am who I am." It would give the name Yahweh the meaning of "He [who] causes to be", rather than simply "He is." Nevertheless, most today who accept that the Holy Name is in the causative look upon this as only meaning Creator, in the sense of the One who created all things, "he creates", which we still do not believe would be very meaningful as far as any kind of revealing in Exodus 6:3. In other words, simply the idea of God's being the creator would not have offered much comfort or encouragement to an enslaved. Rather, if we should accept that the Holy Names is causative, we should see something more meaningful to the situation at hand, that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is not just the Creator, but that He is the Causer of events according to what he had promised. It would be in this latter sense that we find meaning to the revealing of the Holy Name in Exodus 6:3 (as well as many other scriptures as referred to earlier), that is, that, although Abraham, Isaac and Jacob knew of the name Yahweh, they did not know that name in its fuller meaning, as the One who accomplishes the covenant promises.** God made the covenant promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, but now he was about to start fulfillment of those promises by delivering Jacob's people from Egypt. Thus this is our preferred understanding of this verse, if the the Holy Name was meant to be understood in the causative. ========== *"Yahweh (ya'we). The Hebrew tetragrammaton (YHVH or YHWH) traditionally pronounced Jehovah (q.v) is now known to be correctly vocalized yahwe. New inscriptional evidence from the second and first millennia B. C. point toward this fact. The old view of Le Clerc, modernly propounded by Paul Haupt and developed by W. F. Albright, has commended itself in the light of the phonetic development and grammatical evidence of increased knowledge of Northwest Semitic and kindred tongues. This thesis holds Yahwe to be originally a finite causative verb from the Northwest Semitic root hwy 'to be, to come into being,' so that the divine name would mean 'he causes to be, or exist,' i. e.,w 'he creates.' Amorite personal names after 2,000 B. C. lend support to the Haupt-Albright view, demonstrating that the employment of the causative stem yahwe "he creates" was in vogue in the linguistic background of early Hebrew." -- Unger's Bible Dictionary, Merrill F. Unger, 1957, Moody Press, Chicago, Page 1177 Also see F M Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, pg 60-71; W. F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, pgs 147-149. **Some have read into our statement that we are saying that Abraham did not have faith that God would fulfill his promises. This, of course, is not our thought at all. Nevertheless, the meaning "He is", we believe holds the greatest merit, but only if one moves away from the traditional idea that it refers only to the existence of God. "I am who I am" in the third person is "He is who He is". Thus, the name "Yahweh" signifies that He is who He is, that is, that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob cannot deny who HE IS. This is stated in the New Testament, that "he can't deny himself" (2 Timothy 2:13), and thus he is faithful in all his promises. This would really have meant something to those children of Israel enslaved in Israel, in that the God of their forefathers had not forgotten the promises made to Abraham. However, Abraham did not live to see the fulfillment of those promises, and thus, in this sense, the name "Yahweh" (HE IS), was unknown to Abraham.  

Part Two Where Did Moses Get His Information?

Before we examine the usage of the Holy Name in Genesis, let us discuss the method by which Moses received the information concerning Genesis. There are three general theories as to how Moses received the information that he put into the book of Genesis. One theory is that Moses received the information directly from God himself. Another is that he received it orally as it was passed down from generation to generation; the other theory is that Moses had earlier documents that had been written by various personages in Genesis that were somehow preserved through the generations, and that Moses simply compiled, and possibly edited, these various documents. As far as verbal inspiration is concerned, any one of these methods would be acceptable. Nevertheless, neither of the first two theories has a parallel anywhere in the canon of Scripture. "Visions and revelations of Yahweh" usually have to do with prophecy that reveals something of the future (as we find in Daniel, Ezekiel, Revelation, etc.). Yahweh did speak directly to Moses and told him what to write, but this is only stated concerning the recording of specific laws and ordinances (such as the Ten Commandments, the book of Leviticus, etc.) What we find in the book of Genesis, however, is entirely in the form of narrative records of historical events. Other Biblical books that parallel to Genesis are Kings, Chronicles, Acts, and so forth. We have no reason to think that any of these historical books were given by direct revelation, but rather that the writers either collected previous documents and edited them (e.g., I and II Kings, I and II Chronicles), or else recorded the events which they had either seen themselves or had ascertained from others who were witnesses (e.g., Luke, Acts). It is also noted that in all the instances where the book of Genesis is quoted or alluded to, not once do any of the New Testament writers refer to the written record as being written by Moses. Yet Moses is mentioned at least 77 times in the New Testament; in about 25 instances Moses is named as the author for references in the other books of the Pentateuch, but never is he mentioned regarding any reference to the book of Genesis. From this we can learn that Moses was the author of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, but we do not have such definitive proof of the authorship of Genesis. This supports the theory that Moses was not the direct author, but that he compiled (and possibly edited) the accounts from earlier documents, probably by written accounts that had been kept on stone or slab, or some other means not yet known to us. Nor did Moses need to have the original autographs of each author, for certainly they could have been copied over by various ones so that the writings could remain readable even if earlier copies may have worn away. With this in mind, let us examine the Genesis record itself. We find that the record does indicate different writers, as can be seen by the expression: "These are the generations of". The word "generations" as used in this expression is the Hebrew word toledoth, which means: "descendants, results, proceedings, generations, genealogies." Thus the word itself indicates descendants of the persons spoken of, not necessarily the history of the person being spoken of. We find at least twelve such divisions in the book of Genesis: * (1) "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." -- Genesis 1:1 * (2) "This is the history of the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Yahweh God made earth and the heavens." -- Genesis 2:4. * (3) "This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, he made him in God's likeness." -- Genesis 5:1. * (4) "This is the history of the generations of Noah." -- Genesis 6:9. * (5) "Now this is the history of the generations of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth." -- Genesis 10:1. * (6) "This is the history of the generations of Shem." -- Genesis 11:10. * (7) "Now this is the history of the generations of Terah." -- Genesis 11:27. * (8) "Now this is the history of the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bore to Abraham." -- Genesis 25:12. * (9) "This is the history of the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son. Abraham became the father of Isaac." -- Genesis 25:19. * (10) "Now this is the history of the generations of Esau (the same is Edom)." -- Genesis 36:1. * (11) "This is the history of the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir:" -- Genesis 36:9. * (12) "This is the history of the generations of Jacob." (Genesis 37:2) Thus there is internal Biblical evidence that the book of Genesis was originally authored by different persons, and the writings of these persons were collected together to form the book of Genesis. However, there is disagreement amongst scholars as to whether the names given in the toledoth scriptures actually represent the author, and also as to whether the "history" being spoken of is in reference to the verses preceding or following the toledoth verse. In other words, many scholars agree that Genesis 1,2 are from two source documents, but the question is, does Genesis 2:4 apply to Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3, or does it apply to Genesis 2:5 through Genesis 4:26? Most scholars claim that the toledoth verse applies to the material preceding it. To support this claim, it is noted that some ancient heathen writings seem to show a summation, called a colophon, at the end of documents. These colophons are similar to that of "toledoth" passages of Genesis. It is also claimed that "toledoth" -- generations -- means the history of the person spoken of, or the genealogy leading up to the person spoken of. The basic meaning of toledoth is: "descendants, results, proceedings, generations, genealogies." The desire to put a name of authorship to the various sections also seems to have a great influence upon many scholars to accept this explanation that the "toledoth" phrase refers to the scriptures preceding, not the scriptures following. Of course, a person could write about those who were his fathers, either from first-hand experience or by obtaining information from the older persons whom he knew, but he could not actually write about his descendants who lived after his death. Nevertheless, there are several obstacles to this theory that the toledoth verses apply to the narrative before and not after the verse. Let us look at some of these obstacles. In some instances, it would require a very odd break in the verses, and the narrative that follows would have a very odd beginning. For instance, the break in Genesis 2:4,5 would have to be made in this manner: "This is the history of the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created. [end of narrative, and start of new document follows:] In the day that Yahweh God made earth and the heavens, no plant of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for Yahweh God had not caused it to rain on the earth." While it is possible that the wordage beginning "In that day" could have belonged to another document than what had just been spoken of, it just does not appear to be so. Logically, it would seem that the final phrase would belong to the first part of the verse, not separate from it. But when we look at Genesis 10:1, we read: "Now this is the history of the generations of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood." The sentence "Now this is the history of the generations of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth" would be the ending of the book, and the sentence "Sons were born to them..." would begin the new book. It would seem very odd for another book to begin with reference to "them" in the book preceeding. (Of course, it is possible that Moses edited the earlier accounts to read this way.) The final objection to the colophon theory is that it would leave the final part of Genesis without such a colophon. Genesis 37:2 would end the book with "This is the history of the generations of Jacob." The last part of verse 2 would begin the new book with: "Joseph, being seventeen years old...." However, this would leave all the verses from Genesis 37:2b to 50:26 without such a colophon. Some claim that the first part of Exodus 1:1 provides such a colophon, but if one examines Exodus 1:1, it should be apparent that it is speaking of the list following, that is, those who came out of Egypt. For these reasons we reject the colophon theory and view the "toledoth" verses as introductions to the history of the children of the one(s) mentioned in the verse. Thus Genesis 2:4 would belong with Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26, etc. Assuming that this is correct, and we have found no solid reason to dispute it, then we will now examine the Genesis record with this in mind.

Part Three Examining The Holy Name in Genesis

Genesis 1:1-2:3 -- The verse that designates the title of the first section of Genesis is Genesis 1:1, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." This is not directly a "toledoth" scripture, since the word does not appear in the verse, but it does seem to serve the same purpose. Genesis 1:1 serves as a synopsis of the creative week about to be discussed. We know that the "beginning" spoken of here includes the entire creative week from Exodus 20:11 and 31:17. Thus the prelude is Genesis 1:1, with the details following. We note that the author of this section uses "ELOHIM"* in reference to the Creator all the way through; the Holy Name "Yahweh" is not used at all. (This gives further evidence that Genesis 2:4a does not belong with this document.) ========= *Although many scholars refer to the "Elohim" as a name of God, in reality it is a title. It is a "name" only it the sense that it is a titular name, not in that it is the personal name of the Creator. We also note concerning this section that we have no name associated with it; a reasonable assumption is that the information concerning the creation was provided by God to Adam, or one of his sons, and the section could have been authored either by Adam, Abel or Seth. Another suggestion is that it was authored by God himself and somehow miraculously provided to Adam or one of his sons. Genesis 2:4-4:26 - It could be that this section was written by Adam, or perhaps Abel or Seth. It gives another summary of the creation of the earth, with more detail concerning the creation of man and then his disobedience. We first find the name "Yahweh" (Jehovah) used in this document, sometimes alone and sometimes with ELOHIM attached, forming the phrase: "Yahweh God"; or as it appears in many translations: "Jehovah God". Thus the first instance of the Holy Name in the Hebrew text is Genesis 2:4. At this point, we need to point out that in most Bible translations you will not find the Holy Name at all in the section (or any of the sections being discussed), because most translators change the Holy Name to the title "the LORD". In most translations, one can recognize the places where the Holy Name occurs in the Hebrew because the letters are in all caps (LORD), whereas places where the Hebrew has "adon", or "adonai", only the first letter is capitalized, as in "Lord", or it may not be capitalize at all. The reason given by many scholars for the usage of "ELOHIM" in the first section and "Yahweh" added in the second chapter is because of the association of "Yahweh" with a covenant, or a promise. We note such a covenant was made with Adam and Eve, that they would live and could enjoy all that is in the garden, except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. To even touch this tree, Yahweh stated, would bring death. This was part of the origianal covenant that God gave to Adam. In effect, Yahweh told Adam: Abide by this covenant, and the promise of life, dominion and delight will be yours; disobey this covenant, and death will result. The delineation of the usage of elohim and Yahweh becomes of even greater importance once we realize the full causative meaning of the name Yahweh, that is, "He causes to be", and the basic meaning of the Hebrew word ELOHIM, meaning strength, power, might, etc. The first section is concerning the mighty acts of God in creation, whereas the second section is concerned with the covenant and promises of God, thus a relevancy to God's sacred name. Nevertheless, the sacred name of Yahweh (Jehovah) is found in the Hebrew of this section in the following verses: Genesis 2:4 - This is the history of the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Yahweh God made earth and the heavens. Genesis 2:5 - No plant of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for Yahweh God had not caused it to rain on the earth. There was not a man to till the ground, Genesis 2:7 - Yahweh God formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Genesis 2:8 - Yahweh God planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed. Genesis 2:9 - Out of the ground Yahweh God made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Genesis 2:15 - Yahweh God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. Genesis 2:16 - Yahweh God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat: Genesis 2:18 - Yahweh God said, "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him." Genesis 2:19 - Out of the ground Yahweh God formed every animal of the field, and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. Whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. Genesis 2:21 - Yahweh God caused a deep sleep to fall on the man, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Genesis 2:22 - He made the rib, which Yahweh God had taken from the man, into a woman, and brought her to the man. Genesis 3:1 - Now the serpent was more subtle than any animal of the field which Yahweh God had made. He said to the woman, "Yes, has God said, 'You shall not eat of any tree of the garden?'" Genesis 3:8 - They heard the voice of Yahweh God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Yahweh God among the trees of the garden. Genesis 3:9 - Yahweh God called to the man, and said to him, "Where are you?" Genesis 3:13 - Yahweh God said to the woman, "What is this you have done?" The woman said, "The serpent deceived me, and I ate." Genesis 3:14 - Yahweh God said to the serpent, "Because you have done this, cursed are you above all cattle, and above every animal of the field. On your belly shall you go, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. Genesis 3:21 - Yahweh God made coats of skins for Adam and for his wife, and clothed them. Genesis 3:22 - Yahweh God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Now, lest he put forth his hand, and also take of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever..." Genesis 3:23 - Therefore Yahweh God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. Genesis 4:1 - The man knew Eve his wife. She conceived, and gave birth to Cain, and said, "I have gotten a man with Yahweh's help." Genesis 4:3 - As time passed, it happened that Cain brought an offering to Yahweh from the fruit of the ground. Genesis 4:4 - Abel also brought some of the firstborn of his flock and of the fat of it. Yahweh respected Abel and his offering, Genesis 4:6 - Yahweh said to Cain, "Why are you angry? Why has the expression of your face fallen? Genesis 4:9 - Yahweh said to Cain, "Where is Abel, your brother?" He said, "I don't know. Am I my brother's keeper?" Genesis 4:10 - Yahweh said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood cries to me from the ground. Genesis 4:13 - Cain said to Yahweh, "My punishment is greater than I can bear. Genesis 4:15 - Yahweh said to him, "Therefore whoever slays Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold." Yahweh appointed a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should strike him. Genesis 4:16 - Cain went out from Yahweh's presence, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. Genesis 4:26 - There was also born a son to Seth, and he named him Enosh. Then men began to call on Yahweh's name. Many will argue that Moses could have written the sacred name of Yahweh into the writings after learning of that name as recorded in Exodus 6. However, if we look as some of the scriptures in the section, we find such an idea to be highly unlikely. For instance, the first person recorded as actually using God's name is Eve. (Genesis 4:1) The record states that Eve said: "I have gotten a man with Yahweh's help." Even if this is viewed an indirect quote, we have no reason to think that Moses added the Holy Name to Eve's words. The only reason we see to think that Moses did add the Holy Name here would be to make this scripture conform to the theory that Moses did add the Holy Name to Genesis. Even more so, we find the statement in Genesis 4:26: "Then men began to call on Yahweh's name. (Or, call themselves by the name of Jehovah. -- Scofield; see also margin of KJV)" We just cannot find any reasonable argument whatsoever that would give us any cause to think that the name Yahweh was not known amongst those who would be calling upon that name. And if they were actually calling upon some other name, what "name" would it have been? And why would Moses have replaced the original name with "Yahweh"? Thus the context and usage in these scriptures bear testimony that it is highly unlikely that Moses did indeed insert the Holy Name into these scriptures. Genesis 5:1-6:8 - That this was originally a separate "book" can be seen by the usuage of the Hebrew word *Cepher*, which means "book". This word "Cepher" is used in reference to many of the books of the Old Testament, as well as to the "book of the covenant", "book of the law", God's book, etc. (Exodus 7:14; 24:7; 32:32,33; 38:61; Joshua 8:31; 1 Samuel 10:25; 2 Samuel 1:18; 1 Kings 11:41; 14:19; 1 Chronicles 9:1; Jeremiah 25:13; Nahum 1:1; Malachi 3:16, etc.) The usuage of this word does provide very strong evidence that this section was originally a separate "book". The name of reference to this section is "Adam". It is because of the desire to make Adam as the author that many wish to say that this applies to the section before and not the section afterward. Yet the section afterward does tell of "generations [or descendants] of Adam." It evidently was not written by Adam, since it records Adam's death as well as a few events after the time that Adam had died. It is not important "who" wrote this history, but if we were to speculate, we would probably say it was written by Noah, for the record ends with Noah. -- Genesis 6:8. Scriptures in this book that use the Holy Name are: Genesis 5:29 - and he named him Noah, saying, "This same will comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, because of the ground which Yahweh has cursed." Genesis 6:3 - Yahweh said, "My spirit will not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; yet will his days be one hundred twenty years." Genesis 6:5 - Yahweh saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Genesis 6:6 - Yahweh was sorry that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him in his heart. Genesis 6:7 - Yahweh said, "I will destroy man whom I have created from the surface of the ground; man, along with animals, creeping things, and birds of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them." Genesis 6:8 - But Noah found favor in Yahweh's eyes. The strongest verses in this section that would indicate that Moses did not add the Holy Name is the quote of Lamech's words in Genesis 5:29 and the statement in Genesis 6:8 that Noah found favor in the eyes of Yahweh. In both instances, it would be highly unlikely to assume that Lamech actually used another name than Yahweh when he spoke of the ground being cursed, or that the author would have done so in Genesis 6:8; again, it there was another name that was orginally used, what was that name? Genesis 6:9-9:29 - "This is the history of the generations of Noah." This section tells the history of the Noah and his sons. Evidently one of the sons of Noah is the author of this section; the content itself indicates that Shem was the one who wrote this, since Shem, in effect, was given the greater blessing. (Genesis 9:26,27) This section records the preparation for the flood, a description of the flood, and the immediate postdiluvian events. This section has the prophecy of Noah concerning his three sons, and Noah's death is recorded. The Holy Name appears in this section in the following scriptures: Genesis 7:1 - Yahweh said to Noah, "Come with all of your household into the ark, for I have seen your righteousness before me in this generation. Genesis 7:5 - Noah did everything that Yahweh commanded him. Genesis 7:16 - Those who went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God commanded him; and Yahweh shut him in. Genesis 8:20 - Noah built an altar to Yahweh, and took of every clean animal, and of every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. Genesis 8:21 - Yahweh smelled the sweet savor. Yahweh said in his heart, "I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake, because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I ever again strike everything living, as I have done. Genesis 9:26 - He said, "Blessed be Yahweh, the God of Shem; Let Canaan be his servant. The scriptures that most favor the idea that Moses did not add the Holy Name are Genesis 8:20 and especially Genesis 9:26. Genesis 8:20 refers to an altar built to Yahweh by Noah; Genesis 9:26 has Noah blessing the name of Yahweh. Again, we see no reason to think that Noah was pronouncing a blessing of some other name. Genesis 10:1-11:9 - "Now this is the history of the generations of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth." Probably a better translation is that of the New American Standard: "Now these are {the records of} the generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah." Again, we cannot be certain of the authorship, but we speculate that it might have been written by either Shem or Terah. The scriptures in this section that contain the Holy Name are: Genesis 10:9 - He was a mighty hunter before Yahweh. Therefore it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before Yahweh." Genesis 11:5 - Yahweh came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men built. Genesis 11:9 - Therefore the name of it was called Babel, because Yahweh confused the language of all the earth, there. From there, Yahweh scattered them abroad on the surface of all the earth. While there is nothing of impressive proof in any these verses that would indicate that the name was not added by Moses, we do believe that it would be strange if some other name would have been used in Genesis 10:9 in the expression, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before Yahweh." From the context, we ascertain that this expression "before Yahweh" means that he was setting himself before Yahweh, that is, above Yahweh. While this hunting may have started out as hunting of wild beasts, the spirit of combativeness spread to the hunting of men, to enslaving men for the selfish benefit. So far had the people gone in opposition to Yahweh, that Yahweh confused their languages, and made them scatter abroad in the earth. Genesis 11:10-11:26 "This is the history of the generations of Shem." The following verses tell the history of the descendants of Shem up to Abraham. Abraham is thus probably the author of this section. This document is very brief, with only a genealogy of the Semitic lineage. It does provide an important link, however, regarding the lineage of the promised one who was to bruise the serpent's head, that is, the Messiah. The Holy Name does not appear in any of these verses. Genesis 11:27-25:18 "Now this is the history of the generations of Terah." This section is rather long, and gives a lot of detail concerning the descendants of Terah: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. This document could possibly actually end with verse 11 of chapter 25, for we also find in this section a brief record of the descendants of Ishmael, which could have been originally written as a separate document. (Genesis 25:12-18) For brevity, we include the two documents together. The Holy Name is used in the document in the following places, as shown in the Masoretic text: Genesis 12:1 - Now Yahweh said to Abram, "Get out of your country, and from your relatives, and from your father's house, to the land that I will show you. Genesis 12:4 - So Abram went, as Yahweh had spoken to him. Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed out of Haran. Genesis 12:7 - Yahweh appeared to Abram, and said, "To your descendants I will give this land." He built an altar there to Yahweh, who appeared to him. Genesis 12:8 - He left from there to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Ai on the east. There he built an altar to Yahweh, and called on the name of Yahweh. Genesis 12:17 - Yahweh plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife. Genesis 13:4 - to the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first. There Abram called on the name of Yahweh. Genesis 13:10 - Lot lifted up his eyes, and saw all the plain of the Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before Yahweh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of Yahweh, like the land of Egypt, as you go to Zoar. Genesis 13:13 - Now the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and sinners against Yahweh. Genesis 13:14 - Yahweh said to Abram, after Lot was separated from him, "Now, lift up your eyes, and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward, Genesis 13:18 - Abram moved his tent, and came and lived by the oaks of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and built an altar there to Yahweh. Genesis 14:22 - Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I have lifted up my hand to Yahweh, God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth, Genesis 15:1 - After these things the word of Yahweh came to Abram in a vision, saying, "Don't be afraid, Abram. I am your shield, your exceedingly great reward." Genesis 15:2 - Abram said, "Lord Yahweh, what will you give me, seeing I go childless, and he who will inherit my estate is Eliezer of Damascus?" Genesis 15:4 - Behold, the word of Yahweh came to him, saying, "This man will not be your heir, but he who will come forth out of your own body will be your heir." Genesis 15:5 - Yahweh brought him outside, and said, "Look now toward the sky, and count the stars, if you are able to count them." He said to Abram, "So shall your seed be." Genesis 15:6 - He believed in Yahweh; and he reckoned it to him for righteousness. Genesis 15:7 - He said to him, "I am Yahweh who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give you this land to inherit it." Genesis 15:8 - He said, "Lord Yahweh, whereby will I know that I will inherit it?" Genesis 15:18 - In that day Yahweh made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates: Genesis 16:2 - Sarai said to Abram," See now, Yahweh has restrained me from bearing. Please go in to my handmaid. It may be that I will obtain children by her." Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. Genesis 16:5 - Sarai said to Abram, "This wrong is your fault. I gave my handmaid into your bosom, and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes. Yahweh judge between me and you." Genesis 16:7 - The angel of Yahweh found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. Genesis 16:9 - The angel of Yahweh said to her, "Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hands." Genesis 16:10 - The angel of Yahweh said to her, "I will greatly multiply your seed, that they will not be numbered for multitude." Genesis 16:11 - The angel of Yahweh said to her, "Behold, you are with child, and will bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, because Yahweh has heard your affliction. Genesis 16:13 - She called the name of Yahweh who spoke to her, "You are a God who sees," for she said, "Have I even stayed alive after seeing him?" Genesis 17:1 - When Abram was ninety-nine years old, Yahweh appeared to Abram, and said to him, "I am God Almighty. Walk before me, and be blameless. Genesis 18:1 - Yahweh appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day. Genesis 18:13 - Yahweh said to Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh, saying, 'Will I really bear a child, yet I am old?' Genesis 18:14 - Is anything too hard for Yahweh? At the set time I will return to you, when the season comes round, and Sarah will have a son." Genesis 18:17 - Yahweh said, "Will I hide from Abraham what I do, Genesis 18:19 - For I have known him, to the end that he may command his children and his household after him, that they may keep the way of Yahweh, to do righteousness and justice; to the end that Yahweh may bring on Abraham that which he has spoken of him." Genesis 18:20 - Yahweh said, "Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous, Genesis 18:22 - The men turned from there, and went toward Sodom, but Abraham stood yet before Yahweh. Genesis 18:26 - Yahweh said, "If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare all the place for their sake." Genesis 18:33 - Yahweh went his way, as soon as he had finished communing with Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place. Genesis 19:13 - for we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is grown great before Yahweh. Yahweh has sent us to destroy it." Genesis 19:14 - Lot went out, and spoke to his sons-in-law, who were pledged to marry his daughters, and said, "Get up! Get out of this place, for Yahweh will destroy the city." But he seemed to his sons-in-law to be joking. Genesis 19:16 - But he lingered; and the men laid hold on his hand, and on the hand of his wife, and on the hand of his two daughters, Yahweh being merciful to him; and they took him out, and set him outside of the city. Genesis 19:24 - Then Yahweh rained on Sodom and on Gomorrah sulfur and fire from Yahweh out of the sky. Genesis 19:27 - Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had stood before Yahweh. Genesis 20:18 - For Yahweh had closed up tight all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife. Genesis 21:1 - Yahweh visited Sarah as he had said, and Yahweh did to Sarah as he had spoken. Genesis 21:33 - Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba, and called there on the name of Yahweh, the Everlasting God. Genesis 22:2 - He said, "Now take your son, your only son, whom you love, even Isaac, and go into the land of Moriah [meaning, 'chosen of Yahweh']. Offer him there for a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I will tell you of." Genesis 22:11 - The angel of Yahweh called to him out of the sky, and said, "Abraham, Abraham!" He said, "Here I am." Genesis 22:14 - Abraham called the name of that place Yahweh-jireh. As it is said to this day, "In Yahweh's mountain it will be provided. Genesis 22:15 - The angel of Yahweh called to Abraham a second time out of the sky, Genesis 22:16 - and said, "I have sworn by myself, says Yahweh, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son, Genesis 24:1 - Abraham was old, and well stricken in age. Yahweh had blessed Abraham in all things. Genesis 24:3 - I will make you swear by Yahweh, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that you shall not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I live. Genesis 24:7 - Yahweh, the God of heaven, who took me from my father's house, and from the land of my birth, who spoke to me, and who swore to me, saying, 'To your descendants I will give this land.' He will send his angel before you, and you shall take a wife for my son from there. Genesis 24:21 - The man looked steadfastly at her, holding his peace, to know whether Yahweh had made his journey prosperous or not. Genesis 24:26 - The man bowed his head, and worshiped Yahweh. Genesis 24:27 - He said, "Blessed be Yahweh, the God of my master Abraham, who has not forsaken his lovingkindness and his truth toward my master. As for me, Yahweh has led me in the way to the house of my master's relatives." Genesis 24:31 - He said, "Come in, you blessed of Yahweh. Why do you stand outside? For I have prepared the house, and room for the camels." Genesis 24:35 - Yahweh has blessed my master greatly. He has become great. He has given him flocks and herds, silver and gold, men-servants and maid-servants, and camels and donkeys. Genesis 24:44 - She will tell me, "Drink, and I will also draw for your camels." Let the same be the woman whom Yahweh has appointed for my master's son.' Genesis 24:48 - I bowed my head, and worshiped Yahweh, and blessed Yahweh, the God of my master Abraham, who had led me in the right way to take my master's brother's daughter for his son. Genesis 24:50 - Then Laban and Bethuel answered, "The thing proceeds from Yahweh. We can't speak to you bad or good. Genesis 24:51 - Behold, Rebekah is before you, take her, and go, and let her be your master's son's wife, as Yahweh has spoken." Genesis 24:52 - It happened that when Abraham's servant heard their words, he bowed himself down to the earth to Yahweh. Genesis 24:56 - He said to them, "Don't hinder me, seeing Yahweh has prospered my way. Send me away that I may go to my master." It is this section that is provides the most positive proof that Moses did not add the Holy Name to the record by its contextual usage in several different scripture. The scriptures that shows this most strongly are Genesis 22:2,14. In the context, Yahweh told Abraham to go to the land of Moriah to offer his son on one of the mountains there. "Moriah" means "Chosen by Yahweh." Some think that Moses simply inserted this name, but this idea has no defense, for there is no record that this land was called this in later times, although the mountain on which Abraham went to offer his son is thought to have been later called Mount Moriah. (2 Chronicles 3:1) Abraham was about to offer his son Isaac, when the angel of Yahweh appeared, and speaking for Yahweh, said: "Don't lay your hand on the boy, neither do anything to him. For now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me." (Genesis 22:12) In verse 13 we read: "Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and saw that behind him was a ram caught in the thicket by his horns. Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering instead of his son." It is for this reason that Abraham gives the mountain a name, as recorded in verse 14: "Abraham called the name of that place Yahweh-jireh, that Yahweh provides. As it is said to this day, 'In Yahweh's mountain it will be provided.'" Since this is the name of a specific place, and Abraham used the Holy Name as part of the name, this should be conclusive proof that Moses did not add the Holy Name to Abraham's words, for it is indefensible to claim that Moses would have provided the Holy Name as part the name that Abraham used to designate this mountain. Additionally, this is the first reference in scripture to the mountain of Yahweh. There are many more scripture in the section, however, that contextually do not support the idea that Moses added the Holy Name into the record. In Genesis 13:4 we read that Abram called on the name of Yahweh. Did Moses add the name here? If Abram was not calling upon the name of Yahweh, then what name was he calling upon? Did he actually call upon a title, and not the Holy Name, such as Adonai, or El, or ELOHIM? We find this hard to believe that he did. In Genesis 14:22, Abram says: "I have lifted up my hand to Yahweh, God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth." Did Abram actually use another word here rather than Yahweh? Again, we find it hard to believe that Abram did not use the Holy Name in this instance. Next we look at Genesis 15:7 where Yahweh speaks to Abram, saying: "I am Yahweh who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give you this land to inherit it." It is inconceivable to think that Moses supplied God's name in this statement. If Yahweh used another word, why would Moses change the words of Yahweh to make him say "I am Yahweh"? Such an idea simply doesn't make sense. But let us continue on. There are several verses in this section that refer to the "angel of Yahweh": Genesis 16:7,9,10,11; 22:11,15. This expression is used later in other books of the Old Testament: Exodus 3:2; Numbers 22:22,24,25,26,27,31,32,34,35; Judges 2:1,4; 5:23; 6:11,12,21,22; 13:3,13,15,16,17,18,20,21; 2 Samuel 24:16; 1 Kings 19:7; 2 Kings 1:3,15; 19:35; 1 Chronicles 21:12,15,16,18,30; Psalm 34:7; 35:5,6; etc. It is not reasonable to think that in Genesis alone this phrase appeared as something else and that Moses inserted the Holy Name into it. See our study: The Angel of Yahweh In Genesis 16:13, we read that Hagar called upon the name of Yahweh. Again, does it sound plausible to think that Hagar actually called upon another name than Yahweh? Furthermore, we again of read of Abraham calling upon the name of Yahweh in Genesis 21:33. Is it reasonable to assume that Abraham actually called upon some other name, and that Moses replaced that earlier name with "Yahweh"? There is no real reason to assume such. Another instance of concern is Genesis 22:16, where Yahweh speaks through his angel, saying: "I have sworn by myself, says Yahweh, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son." Did that angel actually use a title here rather than God's name? Again, such an idea just isn't credible. Furthermore in Genesis 24:3, Abraham says to his servant: "I will make you swear by Yahweh, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that you shall not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I live." Here Abraham is recorded as using the Holy Name to identify the God of heaven and the God of the earth. Did Abraham actually use some other word than the Holy Name? If he did, then why would Moses say he swore by Yahweh? Genesis 24:7 Abraham again identifies Yahweh as the God of heaven. Abraham's servant also is recorded as using the Holy Name in Genesis 24:35,48. He says he worshiped Yahweh, and blessed Yahweh, and uses this word to identify the God of his master, Abraham. Genesis 25:19 - 36:43 This section deals with the history of Isaac and his descendants. It was probably written by Jacob, Isaac's son. As with the last section, the final part of this section is probably two separate documents (Genesis 36:1-8 and Genesis 36:9-43), written some time later by someone other than Jacob. For brevity, we consider the three documents together With this section, we find references to "Yahweh" in the following scriptures: Genesis 25:21 - Isaac entreated Yahweh for his wife, because she was barren. Yahweh was entreated by him, and Rebekah his wife conceived. Genesis 25:22 - The children struggled together within her. She said, "If it be so, why do I live?" She went to inquire of Yahweh. Genesis 25:23 - Yahweh said to her, Two nations are in your womb, Two peoples will be separated from your body. The one people will be stronger than the other people. The elder will serve the younger. Genesis 26:2 - Yahweh appeared to him, and said, "Don't go down into Egypt. Dwell in the land which I will tell you of. Genesis 26:12 - Isaac sowed in that land, and reaped in the same year one hundred times what he planted. Yahweh blessed him. Genesis 26:22 - He left that place, and dug another well. They didn't argue over that one. He called it Rehoboth. He said, "For now Yahweh has made room for us, and we will be fruitful in the land." Genesis 26:24 - Yahweh appeared to him the same night, and said, "I am the God of Abraham your father. Don't be afraid, for I am with you, and will bless you, and multiply your seed for my servant Abraham's sake." Genesis 26:25 - He built an altar there, and called on the name of Yahweh, and pitched his tent there. There Isaac's servants dug a well. Genesis 26:28 - They said, "We saw plainly that Yahweh was with you. We said, 'Let there now be an oath between us, even between us and you, and let us make a covenant with you, Genesis 26:29 - that you will do us no harm, as we have not touched you, and as we have done to you nothing but good, and have sent you away in peace.' You are now the blessed of Yahweh." Genesis 27:7 - 'Bring me venison, and make me savory food, that I may eat, and bless you before Yahweh before my death.' Genesis 27:20 - Isaac said to his son, "How is it that you have found it so quickly, my son?" He said, "Because Yahweh your God gave me success." Genesis 27:27 - He came near, and kissed him. He smelled the smell of his clothing, and blessed him, and said, "Behold, the smell of my son Is as the smell of a field which Yahweh has blessed. Genesis 28:13 - Behold, Yahweh stood above it, and said, "I am Yahweh, the God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon you lie, to you will I give it, and to your seed. Genesis 28:16 - Jacob awakened out of his sleep, and he said, "Surely Yahweh is in this place, and I didn't know it." Genesis 28:21 - so that I come again to my father's house in peace, and Yahweh will be my God, Genesis 29:31 - Yahweh saw that Leah was hated, and he opened her womb, but Rachel was barren. Genesis 29:32 - Leah conceived, and bore a son, and she named him Reuben. For she said, "Because Yahweh has looked at my affliction. For now my husband will love me." Genesis 29:33 - She conceived again, and bare a son, and said, "Because Yahweh has heard that I am hated, he has therefore given me this son also." She named him Simeon. Genesis 29:35 - She conceived again, and bare a son. She said, "This time will I praise Yahweh." Therefore she named him Judah. Then she stopped bearing. Genesis 30:24 - She named him Joseph, saying, "May Yahweh add another son to me." Genesis 30:27 - Laban said to him, "If now I have found favor in your eyes, stay here, for I have divined that Yahweh has blessed me for your sake." Genesis 30:30 - For it was little which you had before I came, and it has increased to a multitude. Yahweh has blessed you wherever I turned. Now when will I provide for my own house also?" Genesis 31:3 - Yahweh said to Jacob, "Return to the land of your fathers, and to your relatives, and I will be with you." Genesis 32:9 - Jacob said, "God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, Yahweh, who said to me, 'Return to your country, and to your relatives, and I will do you good.' We will now examine scriptures that indicate that Yahweh was indeed used by the original writers. In Genesis 26:4, we read that Yahweh appeared to Isaac, and identified himself as "Yahweh", the God of his father, Abraham. Since this is an identity verse the idea that Moses would supply the name hear is untenable, for if Yahweh had identified himself by some other title or name, why would Moses have changed the words of Yahweh to read otherwise? Likewise in Genesis 26:5, Isaac called upon the name of Yahweh. While not as convincing as Yahweh's own words in Genesis 26:4, this still gives us reason to think that Isaac actually did call upon the name of Yahweh, and not some other unknown name. Again, in Genesis 28:13, Yahweh identifies himself to Jacob by the name "the God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac." This is another identitiy verse, and we find no justification at all to think that Yahweh did not use his name to identify himself by on this occasion. In Genesis 32:9, Jacob is recorded as using the name Yahweh to identify whom he is calling upon as: "God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac." Did Jacob actually use some other title or name and then Moses substituted "Yahweh" in place of the other name? Not very likely. Genesis 37:1 - 50:26 This is the final section of Genesis, pertaining to Jacob and his offspring. Verse one does not contain the toledoth verse, but begins with a statement concerning Jacob's dwelling in the land of Canaan. In verse 2, we find the statement concerning the generations of Jacob. Genesis 38:7 - Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the sight of Yahweh. Yahweh killed him. Genesis 38:10 - The thing which he did was evil in the sight of Yahweh, and he killed him also. Genesis 39:2 - Yahweh was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man. He was in the house of his master the Egyptian. Genesis 39:3 - His master saw that Yahweh was with him, and that Yahweh made all that he did prosper in his hand. Genesis 39:5 - It happened from the time that he made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that Yahweh blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of Yahweh was on all that he had, in the house and in the field. Genesis 39:21 - But Yahweh was with Joseph, and showed kindness to him, and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. Genesis 39:23 - The keeper of the prison didn't look after anything that was under his hand, because Yahweh was with him; and that which he did, Yahweh made it prosper. Genesis 49:18 - I have waited for your salvation, Yahweh. This provides all of the places in Genesis where the tetragrammaton appears in the Hebrew "Masoretic" text. Having looked at all of these occurrences, we do not see reason to give credence to the idea that Moses supplied the tetragrammaton in Genesis.

Part Four Examining The Holy Name in Exodus 3-5

If we examine chapters 3-5 of Exodus, we have even more evidence that the Holy Name was used before the statements made to Moses in Exodus 6:3. Yahweh appears as follows: Exodus 3:2 - The angel of Yahweh appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. Exodus 3:4 - When Yahweh saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the midst of the bush, and said, "Moses! Moses!" He said, "Here I am." Exodus 3:7 - Yahweh said, "I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt, and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows Exodus 3:15 - God said moreover to Moses, "You shall tell the children of Israel this, 'Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.' This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations. Exodus 3:18 - They will listen to your voice, and you shall come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall tell him, 'Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Now please let us go three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to Yahweh, our God.' Exodus 4:1-9 - Moses answered, "But, behold, they will not believe me, nor listen to my voice; for they will say, 'Yahweh has not appeared to you.' Yahweh said to him, "What is that in your hand?" He said, "A rod." He said, "Throw it on the ground." He threw it on the ground, and it became a snake; and Moses ran away from it. Yahweh said to Moses, "Put forth your hand, and take it by the tail." He put forth his hand, and laid hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand. "That they may believe that Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you." Yahweh said furthermore to him, "Now put your hand inside your cloak." He put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow. He said, "Put your hand inside your cloak again." He put his hand inside his cloak again, and when he took it out of his cloak, behold, it had turned again as his other flesh. "It will happen, if they will neither believe you nor listen to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. It will happen, if they will not believe even these two signs, neither listen to your voice, that you shall take of the water of the river, and pour it on the dry land. The water which you take out of the river will become blood on the dry land." Exodus 4:10 - Moses said to Yahweh, "Oh, Lord, I am not eloquent, neither before now, nor since you have spoken to your servant; for I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue." Exodus 4:11 - Yahweh said to him, "Who made man's mouth? Or who makes one mute, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? Isn't it I, Yahweh? Exodus 4:14 - The anger of Yahweh was kindled against Moses, and he said, "What about Aaron, your brother, the Levite? I know that he can speak well. Also, behold, he comes forth to meet you. When he sees you, he will be glad in his heart. Exodus 4:19 - Yahweh said to Moses in Midian, "Go, return into Egypt; for all the men who sought your life are dead." Exodus 4:21 - Yahweh said to Moses, "When you go back into Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your hand, but I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go. Exodus 4:24 - It happened on the way at a lodging place, that Yahweh met him and wanted to kill him. Exodus 4:27 - Yahweh said to Aaron, "Go into the wilderness to meet Moses." He went, and met him on God's mountain, and kissed him. Exodus 4:28 - Moses told Aaron all the words of Yahweh with which he had sent him, and all the signs with which he had charged him. Exodus 4:30 - Aaron spoke all the words which Yahweh had spoken to Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people. Exodus 4:31 - The people believed, and when they heard that Yahweh had visited the children of Israel, and that he had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshiped. Exodus 5:1 - Afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said to Pharaoh, "This is what Yahweh, the God of Israel, says, 'Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.'" Exodus 5:2 - Pharaoh said, "Who is Yahweh, that I should listen to his voice to let Israel go? I don't know Yahweh, and moreover I will not let Israel go." Exodus 5:3 - They said, "The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh, our God, lest he fall on us with pestilence, or with the sword." Exodus 5:17 - But he said, "You are idle! You are idle! Therefore you say, 'Let us go and sacrifice to Yahweh.' Exodus 5:21 - and they said to them, "May Yahweh look at you, and judge, because you have made us a stench to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to kill us." Exodus 5:22 - Moses returned to Yahweh, and said, "Lord, why have you brought trouble on this people? Why is it that you have sent me? Exodus 6:1 - Yahweh said to Moses, "Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh, for by a strong hand he shall let them go, and by a strong hand he shall drive them out of his land." What is important in these scriptures is that when God said to Moses to tell the Israelites that it was "Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob", that was sending him (Exodus 3:15), there is not any indication that the Israelites would not recognize Yahweh as the name of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Rather, it is plainly stated that Yahweh is the "God of the Hebrews". (Exodus 3:18) In all the narrative of Exodus 4:1-9, there is no mention that the Israelites would not recognize the name, "Yahweh" as their God, but the emphasis is on whether they would know that Moses was sent by Yahweh. Exodus 4:31 reveals that the people did believe, but no mention is made that they were suprized by the name "Yahweh." Rather the scriptures relate the opposite: that they readily recognized who was meant by the name "Yahweh." Furthermore, we have more to notice in Yahweh's statement to Moses in Exodus 3:15: "You shall tell the children of Israel this, 'Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.' This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations." This indicates that Yahweh expects for his name to used by his people forever, thus discounting the later idea of not using his name, or the idea of some that the name "Yahweh" was meant to be just a temporary name, and that later it was to be replaced with titles. In summary, we find that the scriptures in Genesis and the first few chapters of Exodus combine to provide evidence that the name "Yahweh" -- as the personal name of God -- was used before the words spoken to Moses in Exodus 6:2,3. We really have no reason not to believe that the word "Yahweh", as the name of the true God, was not spoken and used by the God's all through Genesis.

Appendix One

Some have claimed that no proper name is given in Genesis that contains any shortened form of Yahweh, but after Genesis 6 we find many proper names that contain some form of Yahweh's name, and wondered why this is so if the name was being used by Abraham, Isaac, and others mentioned in Genesis. For instance, Again, this does not mean that the Holy Name was not used in Genesis, but for some reason unknown to us, the Holy Name was not generally included in the personal names of peoples or places. In reality, there are at least two exceptions to this idea: Genesis 22:2, where the land of Moriah is mentioned, and Genesis 22:14 where we read that "Abraham called the name of that place Yahweh-jireh." There are some other possible instances, such as the name "Beriah" (Genesis 46:17), which some give the meaning: "Yahweh has created/cut down" or "a gift of Yahweh". Another name is Ajah, but this word is usually given the meaning "falcon". (Genesis 36:24) Some other names that could contain a form of the name of Yahweh are Jahleel (Genesis 46:14: Hoping in Yahweh); Jahzeel (Genesis 46:14); Jeriah [Jerijah] (Genesis 10:26). Regardless, there may have been some other reason that we do not know of that would account for the lack of the Holy Name in the personal names in Genesis, one of which may be similar to the lack of using the name "Jesus" as a personal name in English. It could have been that there was a general uneasiness about using the Holy Name as part of a personal name, even as most in the United States would not think of naming their son "Jesus".

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Acts 4:12 - The Only Name Given By Which We Are Saved

The question has been asked, If the name "Jehovah/Yahweh" is so important, then why does Acts 4:12 say, "There is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name [v10 Jesus Christ] under heaven that has been given among men, by which we must be saved"? Would this not have been the logical place for God to have used the name "Yahweh"?

Acts 4:12 in the World English reads:

There is salvation in none other, for neither is there any other name under heaven, that is given among men, in [Greek, Strong’s #1722, instrumental “en”] which we must be saved!"
From the Westcott & Hort Interlinear:
Acts 4:12 kai ouk estin en allw oudeni hee swteeria oude
2532 3756 1510_2 1722 0243 3762 3588 4991 3761
gar onoma estin heteron hupo ton ouranon to
1063 3686 1510_2 2087 5259_5 3588 3772 3588
dedomenon en anthrwpois en hw dei
1325 1722 0444 1722 3739 1163
swtheenai heemas
4982 1473_95

There is nothing in Acts 4:12 that robs the Holy Name of the Most High of its importance. The name "Jesus" is "given among men" by the God and Father of Jesus (Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3) as the name by which men must be saved. As an office, the God and Father of Jesus has exalted the name of Jesus above every other name (Philippians 2:9), excluding that which only belongs to the Most High. (1 Corinthians 15:27) Nothing in the scripture says that the name of Jesus replaces the importance of the name of His God. Jesus was sent by Jehovah, speaks for Jehovah, represents Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; Jehovah is presented as one person from Genesis to Revelation. He is never presented as more than one person. Jesus is not Jehovah whom he represents and speaks for. — Deuteronomy 18:15-19; Matthew 23:39; Mark 11:9,10; Luke 13:35; John 3:2,17; 5:19,43; 6:57; 7:16,28; 8:26,28,38; 10:25; 12:49,50; 14:10; 15:15; 17:8,26; Acts 3:13-26; Hebrews 1:1,2; Revelation 1:1.
Jesus, however, was not a savior "besides" or “apart from” Jehovah (Isaiah 43:11), for he was sent by Jehovah. Like the saviors sent by Jehovah before Jesus to save Israel out her troubles (Nehemiah 9:27), Jesus was likewise sent by the same God (John 3:17; 8:42; 10:36; 17:3; Galatians 4:4; 1 John 4:9,10) to save the world; Jesus receives his power and strength from Jehovah, his God. — Psalm 2:2,7,8; 110:1,2; Isaiah 9:6,7; 61:1; Luke 1:32; Jeremiah 23:5; Daniel 7:13,14; John 17:1,3; Acts 2:36; Ephesians 1:3,17-23; Hebrews 1:2,6. 
See the study: Isaiah 43:11 – Besides Jehovah There is No Savior.
As shown in the Interlinear above, the Greek word transliterated as “EN” is instrumental. Jesus is the only instrument that God uses to deliver man from the condemnation in Adam, thus it is only logical that Paul would say that there is no other name by means of which we are saved. In other words, the only Most High is the ultimate savior, Jesus is the instrument that the Most High uses to bring salvation.

Sunday, February 5, 2017

Adonay, The Tetragrammaton, and the Great Isaiah Scroll

The claim is made concerning the New World Translation it that it is inconsistent in in translating Adonay (or as some prefer, Adonai), for in many places it is translated as "Sovereign Lord" and many other places as "Jehovah". For example, in Isaiah 9:8 it is claimed that it is translated as "Jehovah".
We are not advocates of the New Word Translation, or any other translation as a whole, for we believe that there is room for improvement in all. This is one of the points of misinformation being spread about how words are translated that needs to be corrected. Actually, the NWT did not "translate" Adonay as "Jehovah", so the writers who make this claim are making misleading statements. Nevertheless, without proper knowledge we do see how one could come to this conclusion, for the Masoretic text does have Adonay, not Yahweh, in many places where the NWT has "Jehovah". Why is this?
As stated in the back to the 1961 reference edition of the NWT, there are 134 instances in the Masoretic text where the Jewish Sopherim (scribes) claimed that they altered the earlier Hebrew text by substituting Adonay for the tetragrammaton. Isaiah 9:8 is one of those places. The complete list may be found in Appendix 32 of the Companion Bible, which appears to actually be in error in a few places when compared with Ginsburg's listing:
We reproduce this Appendix below:
The 134 Passages Where The Sopherim Altered "Jehovah" to "Adonai". This Is Appendix 32 From The Companion Bible. Out of extreme (but mistaken) reverence for the Ineffable Name "Jehovah", the ancient custodians of the Sacred Text substituted in many places "Adonai" (see Appendix 4. viii. 2). These, in the Authorized Version and Revised Version, are all printed "Lord". In all these places we have printed it "LORD", marking the word with an asterisk in addition to the note in the margin, to inform the reader of the fact. The official list given in the Massorah (107-15, Ginsburg's edition) contains the 134. Genesis 18:3,27,30,32; 19:18; 20:4. Exodus 4:10,13; 5:22; 15:17; 34:9,9. Numbers 14:17. Joshua 7:8. Judges 6:15; 13:8. 1 Kings 3:10,15; 22:6. 2Kings 7:6; 19:23. Isaiah 3:17,18; 4:4; 6:1,8,11; 7:14,20; 8:7; 9:8,17; 10:12; 11:11; 21:6,8,16; 28:2; 29:13; 30:20; 37:24; 38:14,16; 49:14. Ezekiel 18:25,29; 21:13; 33:17,29. Amos 5:16; 7:7,8; 9:1. Zechariah 9:4. Micah 1:2. Malachi 1:12,14. Psalm 2:4; 16:2; 22:19,30; 30:8; 35:3,17,22; 37:12; 38:9,15,22; 39:7; 40:17; 44:23; 51:15; 54:4; 55:9; 57:9; 59:11; 62:12; 66:18; 68:11,17,19,22,26,32; 73:20; 77:2,7; 78:65; 79:12; 86:3,4,5,8,9,12,15; 89:49,50; 90:1,17; 110:5; 130:2,3,6. Daniel 1:2; 9:3,4,7,9,15,16,17,19,19,19. Lamentations 1:14,15,15; 2:1,2,5,7,18,19,20; 3:31,36,37,58. Ezra 10:3. Nehemiah 1:11; 4:14. Job 28:28. To these may be added the following, where "Elohim" was treated in the same way :- 2 Samuel 5:19-25; 6:9-17} Where the Authorized Version has "LORD." 1 Chronicles 13:12; 14:10,11,14,16; 16:1. Psalm 14:1,2,5; 53:1,2,4,5.} Where in Authorized Version and Revised Version it still appears as "God". It is printed "GOD" in the Companion Bible.
The list given by Bullinger has been shown to be in error in a few places; but the New World Translation has the corrected listing in its Appendix:
Following is a list of these 134 places, according to Ginsburg's Massorah, Vol. I, pp. 25, 26, [section] 115: Ge 18:3,27,30,31,32; 19:18; 20:4; Ex 4:10,13; 5:22; 15:17; 34:9,9; Nu 14:17; Jos 7:8; Jg 6:15; 13:8; 1 Ki 3:10,15; 22:6; 2 Ki 7:6; 19:23; Ezr 10:3; Ne 1:11; 4:14; Job 28:28; Ps 2:4; 16:2; 22:30; 30:8; 35:17,22,23; 37:13; 38:9,15.22; 39:7; 40:17; 44:23; 51:15; 54:4; 55:9; 57:9; 59:11; 62:12; 66:18; 68:11,17,19,22,26,32; 73:20; 77:2,7; 78:65; 79:12; 86:3,4,5,8,9,12,15; 89:49,50; 90:1,17; 110:5; 130:2,3,6; Isa 3:17,18; 4:4; 6:1,8,11; 7:14,20; 8:7; 9:8,17; 10:12; 11:11; 21:6,8,16; 28:2; 29:13; 30:20; 37:24; 38:14,16; 49:14; La 1:14,15,15; 2:1,2,5,7,18,19,20; 3:31,36,37,58; Eze 18:25,29; 21:9; 33:17,20; Da 1:2; 9:3,4,7,9,15,16,17,19,19,19; Am 5:16; 7:7,8; 9;1; Mic 1:2; Zec 9:4; Mal 1:12,14.
Notwithstanding, the validity of Ginsburg's findings has also been questioned. And, indeed, some of the places given should be questioned. Lawrence Schiffman is of the view that the emendations theory of Ginsburg, and supported by Bullinger, is a mistaken understanding of the Massorah. Also Nehemiah Gordon, who has worked with Emanuel Tov, is of similar view, that Ginsburg basically was in error.
Nevertheless, the Great Isaiah Scroll (of the Dead Sea Scrolls) has Adonay (or Adoni*), not Yahweh, in Isaiah 9:8. This indicates that the listing of the Jewish Sopherim may not be totally accurate. ========== *Adoni: The Hebrew words Adoni (my Lord) and Adonai (Sovereign Lord) differ only in that that the Masoretic scribes added the extra vowel point to make a distinction. This was not done until several centuries after Jesus died. In the original Hebrew text there is no distinction between the words "Adoni" and "Adonai". Thus some argue that the reason that Adonai appears only to refer to Yahweh is that the scribes deliberately added the vowel point only where they thought there was a reference to Yahweh, thus distinguishing the word from Adoni (my Lord). For this reason many believe that several of the places where "Adonai" appears in the Masoretic text should actually read "adoni", and Isaiah 6:1 is one of those places. With this line of reasoning we tend to be in agreement.
We do find that the Great Isaiah Scroll supports Ginsburg's list in the following places, exactly as claimed, but the Masoretic text has adonay (or adoni*) in these places: Isaiah 3:18; 6:11; 7:14; 8:7; 21:16; 28:2; 37:24. Thus in these verses, the Great Isaiah has the tetragrammaton rather than Adonai (or Adoni) as in the Masoretic texts.
On the other hand, there are a number of scriptures in Isaiah that were claimed to originally have the tetragrammaton, but such is not supported by the Great Isaiah Scroll: Isaiah 3:17; 4:4; 6:1,8; 7:20; 9:17; 10:12; 11:11; 21:6,8; 29:13; 30:20; 38:14,16; 49:14. In other words, in these instances, the tetragrammton does not appear in the Great Isaiah Scroll, even though Gingsburg claims that the tetragrammaton originally appeared in these verses.
A translation of the Great Isaiah Scroll can be found at:
What does this mean? Simply that there are more instances of the claims of Ginsburg that are not supported by the Great Isaiah Scroll than are supported. Assuming (and we point out that this is an assumption, although we consider this assumption to be more likely than the assumption that the changes were made before the Great Isaiah Scroll was copied) that the Great Isaiah Scroll does accurately represent the original writings, then the claims made for the Jewish Sopherim for the latter list of scriptures is inaccurate. We assume that the Great Isaiah Scroll would be more accurate than the list made by the Jewish Sopherim, thus this also throws some doubt on the accuracy of the list for the scriptures in other books, not just that of the book of Isaiah.
The claim made, however, is that the changes to the text were made before 300 BCE, whereas the Isaiah Scroll is dated later than this. The claim is that these changes were done by the Sopherim (scribes: plural noun form of the verb, caphar, Strong's #5608), and that it was done under the supervision of Ezra and Nehemiah, and that it was done around 410 to 300 BCE. The scriptures cited are Nehemiah 8:8,9 and Ezra 7:6,11, by which it is claimed that Nehemiah and Ezra were authorized to edit the text. (Actually, all that we read is that Ezra as a scribe, a copyist, one of the Sopherim. There is nothing in the verses giving him or anyone else authorization to change the text.) Therefore, we believe the Great Isaiah Scroll is more accurate than the assumption that Ezra and Nehemiah made any changes.
The list of 134 places is obtained from a work of notes attributed to the Sopherim (the Scribes) which have been combined to form part of what is called Gingsburgh's Massorah. It is alleged from these notes that the Sopherim claimed they changed YHWH (Yod-He-Waw-He) to ADNY (ALEPH-DALET-NUN-YOD) in the 134 places. ADNY, without the "quamets" point, is often transliterated as "adoni", by Lord. However, these alleged changes are disputed by some.
Something else we need to note is that there were no vowel points in the Hebrew text until several centuries after Christ. The Masoretes added the point to ADNY in places where they believed that ADNY referred to Yahweh, to form the word we often transliterate as Adonai, or Adonay. According the legends, these 134 alleged changes occurred approximately from 410 BCE to 300 BCE, with the claim that Ezra and Nehemiah were authorized (by someone, but, as yet, we have not been able to find 'who' supposed authorized them) to edit, and change, allegedly, improve, the text. We, however, doubt that such changes were made until much later. We certainly cannot see either Ezra or Nehemiah as having anything to do with changing the text, especially concerning the Most Holy Name. The Isaiah Scroll can be seen to indicate that the changes were made later, but one can read the evidence different ways so as to make it fit the legend. The LXX (Septuagint) is sometimes cited as proof of an earlier change, but actually cannot be used as proof either one way or the other.
Evidently, the tradition of replacing another name for the holy name, at least orally, had actually begun long before the exile to Babylon, with many calling upon the name "Baal/Baalim", meaning "Master, Lord", instead of Yahweh. (1 Kings 18:6; Jeremiah 12:16; 23:27) Please note that Israelites "Baal" worshipers often did not outright reject the Law of Yahweh; they most often tried to blend Baal worship into the Holy Writings. After 332 BCE, with the growing influence of Hellenistic philosophy and culture, the practice turned, at least orally, to calling upon the name of Adonai, instead of Yahweh. The false teaching was being promoted that the holy name should not be pronounced, and certain scriptures were being misused to promote that claim. The Greek form "Adonis" corresponds with the Hebrew, Adoni, or, by extension, Adonai, but as far as we have been able to determine, no written Greek translation has "Adonis" as a substitute for the holy name; they usually have a form of kurios substituted for the holy name. We have come to the conclusion that Hellenistic influence brought forth two general forms of apostasy, often within the same Jewish leaders: (1) a blending of Hellenistic mythology into and alongside the Bible; (2) a development of traditional laws and doctrines aimed at maintaining Jewish leadership and a separateness from Hellenistic influence. -- Matthew 12:1-8; 15:2-6; Mark 7:3-9; Luke 6:1-11; Colossians 2:8; 1 Peter 1:18 For more information on the holy name, see:
Thus, the disobedient Sopherim (Scribes) are the ones who are more than likely responsible for any substitutions of a form of adon in the Hebrew text, not Ezra or Nehemiah. We have no actual way of knowing when the changes were made to the text, but, in keeping with other findings, it probably was somewhere toward the latter half of the first century AD.
Related Links Psalm 110:1 - The "Lord" of David Isaiah Saw His Glory — John 12:41 Abraham and the Three Angels The following links are provided for further research although we may not agree with all statements or conclusions of the writers: The Emendations of the Sopherim The Companion's Bible's Appendix 32 An examination of the Appendix and a comparison with the New World Translation's Appendix and Ginsburg. References in some forums online: Related Books The Great Isaiah Scroll (1Qisaa): A New Edition (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah) (Studies of the Texts of Thedesert of Judah) [Library Binding] Donald W. Parry (Editor), Elisha Qimron (Editor) This text comprises transcriptions of the great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa) that were created from the leather scroll itself, housed in the Shrine of the Book of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The transcriptions were then checked against enhanced computer images of the John C. Trever negatives. Most emendations by different scribal hands are indicated. The photographs belong to the S.J. Schweig and the John C. Trever collection. [CLICK HERE for USA] * [CLICK HERE for Canada] * [CLICK HERE for United Kingdom] Scrolls from Qumran Cave I: The Great Isaiah Scroll the Order of the Community, the Pesher to Habakkuk [Paperback] John C. Trever (Author) [CLICK HERE for USA] * [CLICK HERE for Canada] * [CLICK HERE for United Kingdom]

Sunday, January 1, 2017

Does Jehovah Mean "God is Mischief"?

Some have tried to make it appear that the word "Jehovah" means "God is Mischief," or "God of Ruin," or something similar. The way they do this is by my separating the English word into two words "Je" and "hovah", and claim that "Je" means God and "Hovah" means mischief. Evidently, it is being imagined and assumed that "JE" is a transliteration of Strong's #3050, often transliterated into English as Yah or Jah, and the they imagine and assume that HOVAH is from Strong's #1943, which is rendered as "mischief" in some translations. Strong's #3050, however does not mean "God", but rather it is a short form of Strong's #3068, that is, it is a short form of the Hebrew form of the Holy Name.

The form of argument represented above is actually false association designed to give a desired conclusion, which is often also a false conclusion since it is based on a false association.

The problem is that Jehovah is not derived from those two words, but rather is an English transliteration from the verb provided in the Masoretic Hebrew text, which Strong gives the number of #3068. The root of this verb is Strongs #1961, the infinitive, "to be". The Hebrew form for "Jehovah" is actually the third person masculine singular form of that verb, meaning "He is" or "He becomes" or "He will be", etc. As expressed in Exodus 3:14 in the first person form, it is "I am", "I become", or "I will be", etc. The full expression in Exodus 3:14 is "I am who I am", or "I will be who I will be", etc. The name thus is referring to WHO God is, all that HE IS, all of His attributes, including his loyalty to fulfilling his promises.

Is Jehovah a Man-Made Name?

The claim is being made that it has been established that the "name Jehovah is not God's name."

Evidently, this is based on the man-made assumption that if it is not pronounced as it was originally pronounced in ancient Hebrew, then it is "not God's name."

The idea that the Holy Name has be pronounced and spelled as it was originally pronounced or spelled in order for it to be God's name is actually what is man-made. God never presented such an idea. You will not find such a thought ever presented in the Bible. Such a doctrine is itself man-made.

If that idea is true, then every English form of any name from the Bible is a "manmade guess" and are not really the names of the persons involved, including any form of the name of God's son, since no one on earth today knows for a certainty what the original Hebrew sounded like. The sounds often used are themselves based on theory, in effect, assumptions.

In Bible times, names did change in spelling from one language to another as can be seen from Koine Greek of the New Testament, as well as many other writings in various languages from that time.

As far as the Holy Name being presented in English as "Jehovah", this is a direct transliteration from the Hebrew Masoretic text. I cannot say that this means that this is the way it was originally pronounced, but it could be; it doesn't really matter. There is no command in the Bible that God's name or any other name has to be pronounced exactly as it was in ancient Hebrew or else it is a false name.

Nevertheless, some have produced a theory, which has often been presented as fact, that the Masoretes took vowels from other words (from their words often transliterated as Adonai and/or Elohim) to form their word that transliterates as Jehovah / Yehowah / Iehouah, etc. However, no evidence that the Masoretes did such thing can be found; there is no reason to think that the Masoretes did not endeavor to present vowels for the Holy Name as they thought it to have been originally pronounced. No, we do not know that "Jehovah" in English is the exact same way it was pronounced in ancient Hebrew; it is almost certain that "Jesus" is not the way the name of His son was pronounced in ancient Hebrew. We do not know Elijah was the way this name was pronunced in ancient Hebrew. Indeed, in the New Testament a transliteration of that name is Elias; the New Testament does not present as being a different name, but as the same name, despite the way many today of the two forms as though they are two different names.

The truth is we do not know for certainty how any of the names in the Bible were originally pronounced. Any claim otherwise is false, since once one examines the basis of such claims, one finds many assumptions being presented, often as though fact.

It is claimed that the literature of the JWs claims that Raymundus Martini coined that word, and God's true religion would not need to guess how the name came to be, His true religion would know it from Jesus.

I am not with the JWs, and I make no claims about any "true religion" except that given by Jesus and the apostles. It is simply a fact that Raymudus Martini never presented the Holy Name as "Jehovah". It is simply a fact that "Jehovah" is a direct transliteration from the Masoretic text which was in existence long before Martini.

Nevertheless, I do not believe that the JW writers claim to be infallible. Regardless, I do not accept what they say as being fact. There are many out there, including many so-called experts, scholars, etc., who present many of their assumptions as being fact, but one should always look for the basis, to see if what is being said is indeed fact, or based on some kind of assumption.

It is claimed that Jesus did not ever rebuke the Jews for not using it or use any translation Himself of YHWH as Almighty God's name, at least not as recorded in the original Greek NT.

We do not have the originals of the New Testament writings, but we can see that the name has been changed in the extant Greek NT manuscripts. It is apparent that someone has changed the Holy Name to forms of the words transliterted as KURIOS and THEOS, and possibly some other words, such as DUNAMIS. If Jesus declared his coming the name of KURIOS rather than the name prophesied that he was to come in in Deuteronomy 18:15-19, then he was actually a false prophet, as speaking in the name of another rather than in the name of Jehovah. -- Deuteronomy 18:20.

It is true that we do not know for a certain, but there is evidence that suggests that towards the end of the first century and beginning of the second century the Jews were confiscating and destroying all Christian writings that contained the Holy Name. Thus, we can see how Christian copyists might have changed the Holy Name to other words in order to keep the Jews from destroying all copies of what became the NT. Additionally, evidence suggests that they did the same with the LXX.

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

"Jehovah" and Jehovah's Witnesses

We are providing a link to the first chapter of Greg Stafford's 3rd Edition of Jehovah's Witnesses Defended. This Chapter has the title:

“Jehovah” and Jehovah’s Witnesses
The file is PDF.

This chapter provides extensive background information concerning the holy name and its usage throughout the Bible. The author, Greg Stafford, evidently no longer supports the JW organization. Of course, we present this, not to defend the JW organization, but we do believe in God's Holy and we believe the information should be of great concern to every Bible student, regardless of denominational ties. We do not necessarily agree with all of Stafford's conclusions, but most of the information is very useful.